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Wednesday, 19 December 2007

Right knee lateral meniscus tear




Ms JW, a 21 yrs old lady was walking on her high-heels when she suddenly twisted her ankle and knee yesterday. The knee swelled up slightly and she could hardly walk. She was brought in by her father yesterday evening and could not bear her weight on the right knee.

Clinically, she had moderate effusion and slight slight restriction of knee flexion. She had tenderness of the joint line (lateral aspect) and a positive McMurray's test. She also had mild tenderness of the proximal attachment of the Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL). She was treated with RICE treatment and sent for further evaluation with plain X-rays and MRI of the Right knee (to evaluate extent of meniscus injury and injury to other structures e.g. ACL). She has been started on isometric exercises. However, she may require early surgical intervention if the meniscus tear restricts movement or can be repaired. Post-surgical rehabilitation would often require up to 12 weeks commitment before return to play.

FOr further reading:-
Meniscus injury
Lateral discoid meniscus

Tuesday, 18 December 2007

Right Axillary Follicular Abscess


Ramli is a 30 yrs old club soccer player who came with painful right armpit (axillary region) painful swelling of 3 days duration. He usually shaves his armpit hair for hygiene purpose but this is the first time he suffered this fate.

I examined him and found several peasized tender, firm swelling in his right axilla but there were no other enlarged lymph nodes. The skin in the groin and axilla is commonly colonised by Staphyloccus Aureus. Minute skin cuts or abrasion could have introduced the infection to the hair follicles. We treated him with a course of antibiotics and some topical antibiotic ointment for 5 days duration. His symptoms resolved quickly as the infection was still at early stage. If the swelling failed to subside, he would have required incision and drainage surgery.

For further reading:-
Folliculitis
Lympadenitis

Thursday, 6 December 2007

Tinea Pedis (Athlete's Foot) and Onychomycosis



Tinea pedis (athlete's foot) is a common fungal condition occuring in the feet of athletes or workers who routinely wear their shoes without drying and cleaning them properly. Although it is more common to find the itchy, scaly (not always) and smelly skin lesion in between the toes, they can also infect the sole of the foot. Athletes who have the habit of wearing shoes belonging to their team mates may transmit the disease to others. This condition is easy to treat with foot hygiene, topical anti-fungal creams and occasionally require oral anti-fungal medication.

The nails may also be infected (see 2nd photo) causing Onychomycosis. This condition is more difficult to treat often requiring oral anti-fungal medication, topical anti-fungal lotion after filing the infected nail.

Links of interest:-
Athlete's Foot: MayoClinic.com
Nail Fungus

Wrist (Radiocarpal ) Impingement and mild arthritis


Mr White (not his real name) is a 120kg weightlifter in his 20s who suffered from right wrist pain since 2 weeks duration. Prior to his competition he came to see me as the pain was preventing him from lifting beyond maximal capacity during 'clean and jerk'. His earlier X-ray did not show any fracture or osteophytes.

I examined his wrist yesterday morning only to find tenderness and slight fullness (synovitis) over the lunate bone in his right wrist. Forceful wrist hyperextension ellicits the same pain he experiences doing 'cleans'. Resisted extension was unaffected (ruling out extensor digitorum communis tendon involvement) He would need to rule out a lunate stress fracture (Radioisotope Bone Scans would be useful). He did not have any scaphoid bone tenderness although it is more common amongst weightlifters.

While awaiting his Radioisotope Bone Scan to rule out a stress fracture or Kienbock's Disease he would need to avoid doing 'cleans' and reduce the load of lifts. An ultrasound scan would be able to determine the extent of joint and tendon involvement with a musculoskeletal radiologist. Meanwhile, he should not participate in competition as it could worsen his condition. He would benefit from daily low frequency ultrasound (Exogen) for another 2 - 4 weeks. If symptoms persists he would need to be reviewed. MRI Scan could be an option then.

Interesting links:-
Wrist arthritis
A possible complication: Kienbock Disease

Sunday, 2 December 2007

Posterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture

Posterior Drawer Test

Friday, 30 November 2007

Samsung Champions Trophy 2007


Kuala Lumpur is hosting the 29th Champion's Trophy featuring 8 world class national teams from 29th November 2007 to 9th December 2007 at the National Hockey Stadium, Bukit Jalil. Entrance will be free to promote the exciting and highly tactical sport in the country.


The teams participating in the championships are:-
1. Australia
2. Germany
3. Great Britain
4. Korea
5. Malaysia
6. Netherlands
7. Pakistan
8. Spain

Although the host Malaysia is fielding young players, the team promised to surprise their stronger opponents with fine skills and courage. I will be watching the team from the stands (instead of the bench) and cheering them on. You may also find a live commentary (with live feeds every 30 seconds) on the official website. All the best to the participating teams!

Find out more here:-
Official Website
The fixtures (schedule) and results
Points Table
Players and Officials
Photo gallery
News Updates
Samsung Official website

Thursday, 29 November 2007

SEA Games Korat 2007

The 24th Southeast Asian Games (SEA Games) will be held in 3 different venues i.e. Korat, Bangkok and Chonburi (Pattaya), Thailand from 6th December to 16th December 2007 in conjunction with the commemoration of 80th birthday of His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej.

The sports featured at the games are:-

* Category I - Athletics and Aquatics including Diving and Water Polo.
* Category II - Archery, Badminton, Basketball, Baseball, Billiards & Snooker, Tenpin Bowling, Boxing, Canoeing, Rowing, Cycling, Equestrian & Polo, Fencing, Football & Futsal, Golf, Gymnastics, Handball, Hockey, Judo, Karate, Rugby 7’s, Sailing & Windsurfing, Sepaktakraw, Shooting & Skeet & Trap, Softball, Table Tennis, Taekwondo, Tennis, Triathlon & Duathlon, Volleyball & Beach Volleyball, Weightlifting and Wushu.
* Category III - Dance Sport, Lawn Bowls, Mauy, Pentanque, Pencak Silat and Traditional Boat Race.

Find out the location of sports here:-
1. Korat: Venues and maps
2. Bangkok: Venues and maps
3. Chonburi (Pattaya): Venues and maps

Find out more about SEA Games 2007 here:-
Official Website for Sea Games Korat 2007
Competition Schedule
Events
Results
News Updates and more news
Sports and logos

Tuesday, 27 November 2007

Pretibial Bursitis (Preacher's Bursitis)




Ms Lee is a lady in her 30s who came to see me with a painless swelling in her right knee for the past 2 weeks. She mentioned to me that she knocked her knee at a pillar last month but it did not swell then. The swelling came after she started doing more home cleaning on her knees.

I found the swelling to be non-tender, soft and cystic, sitting just on top of the tibial tuberosity. I suggested that she stay away from doing work on her knees for another 2 weeks. Meanwhile, the X-ray of her Right tibia was normal (to rule out any bony abnormality due to her fall or any tumours). An ultrasound of the swelling would be able to demonstrate any fluid. If the swelling failed to subside after 1-2 weeks we would investigate further.

If she was an athlete playing field hockey, soccer or rugby, we would investigate for infection (abscess).

Sunday, 25 November 2007

Thursday, 22 November 2007

Bilateral Knee Osgood Schlatter's Disease




Jimmy (not his real name) is a 15 yrs old hockey junior state player who has been suffering from pain in both knees since 3 years ago. He also noticed that his tibial tuberosity was more prominent than other players. The pain would worsen with intensive weight training and running on hard turf surface. His dad was planning to give him some additional quadriceps strengthening exercises for his 'thin' legs but decided to ask for my opinion.

I examined his knees and found that he indeed has a protruding tibial tuberosity on both knees. It was painful for him to attempt to bend his knees fully but he was able to do so with my assistance (passive movement). He had pain squatting beyond 120 degrees.

In most cases, Osgood-Schlatter disease is caused by microtrauma in the deep fibers of the patellar tendon at its insertion on the tibial tuberosity and which may be associated with avulsion. The condition is usually self-limiting and symptoms resolve with skeletal maturity in over 90% of cases, when the tibial tubercle fuses to the remainder of the tibia.

He would require a plain X-ray to demonstrate any bone ossicles or avulsion and an ultrasound scan by an experienced sonographer may confirm the diagnoses.

I advised him to lay off running on the turf and focus on light skill workout. He was also encouraged to do some aqua-jogging for fitness. His pain would usually take 2-4 weeks to subside. He was also prescribed NSAIDS to relieve his pain and a patella band to unload the stress from the tibial tuberosity. Surgery is very rarely indicated.

Links of Interest:
Osgood Shlatter's Disease
Tibial tubercle avulsion

Wednesday, 14 November 2007

Morton's Neuroma (Interdigital Neuroma) and Ankle Instability



My ex-colleague referred a housewife in her forties with complaints of left forefoot pain since 4 months duration. The excruciating pain is worse while taking the first few steps after sitting or lying down. She got herself a pair of soft Japanese slippers at home to help her walk at home. Hence, she places her weight on her right lower limb and just drags the left lower limb (painful gait). Her back started to hurt when she needed to walk a while longer. She told me she had seen multiple surgeons (received 2 Corticosteroid injections with pain-relief lasting for 2 months), traditional medicine practitioners, massage therapists and general practitioners but the pain relief was inadequate and short-lived.

After probing a little more, she told me that it first started when she twisted her left ankle 4 months ago. She then visited a traditional chinese medicine practitioner who massaged her foot and ankle. Apparently her foot started hurting after the treatment.

Upon examination of her posture and gait, I found that she had overpronation and unstable ankle. Her anterotalofibular ligament was torn and she had poor muscle tone in her left lower limb due to disuse atrophy. She had tenderness between the 4th and 5th metatarsal heads (uncommon for Morton's Neuroma) and a positive squeeze test. She would probably need an Ultrasound scan (more economical than MRI) for definitive diagnoses.

Taping her medial longitudinal arch seem to reduce her pain. A further double ankle lock and lateral stirrups seemed to complete eliminate the pain. I was concerned that she had lost muscle power and tone since she was placing her weight on the opposite side. I left her with some NSAIDS and athletic tape after teaching her the technique but she would need at least 4 - 8 weeks rehabilitation to return her normal function.
We will look into getting her a suitable orthoses for her feet. She may not require Corticosteroid or Alcohol injections if symptoms subside with the use of corrective insoles. If conservative treatment fails after 3-6 months, surgical excision could be done.


Articles of interest:
Morton's Neuroma
Alcohol Injections under Ultrasound guidance
Investigations for Morton's Neuroma
Interventions for the treatment of Morton's neuroma (Cochrane Review)

Non-dsplaced fracture neck of radius and avulsion fracture of olecranon


John (not his real name) is a 28 yrs old recreational basketball player who slipped while playing and landed on his outstretched arm (on his left palm). He got up and felt a sharp pain in his left forearm and could not straighten or bend his elbows fully. He also could not twist his wrists (supinate and pronate).

He immediately came over to see me yesterday evening and I examined him and found that he had a very tender common extensor tendon suggesting that he might have partially torn his tendon. He could not do the extensor muscle testing (resisted extension) due to the pain. There was no crepitus but I suspected a possible greenstick fracture of his left radius bone. His pain was still quite unbearable despite getting an injection for pain.

I sent him off for an X-ray of his ulna and radius along with an Orthopaedic consultation as he may need further intervention if there was a fracture. His report from the surgeon shown a non-displaced fracture of the neck of radius with minimal avulsion of his triceps insertion into the >olecranon. He was treated conservatively with Plaster of Paris cast and was due for a review in 3 weeks. This may be followed by support with a functional brace to expedite his rehabilitation process.

Links to articles of interest:-
Radial Head Fractures
The Use of Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Occult Fracture of the Radial Neck
Olecranon Fracture

Saturday, 10 November 2007

Now Everyone Can Fly: Air Asia




The Malaysian contingent travelled on the no frills air carrier, Air Asia for the Asian Indoor Games in Macau. We had a pleasant trip taking approximately 4 hours from KLCCT to Macau on the 24th October 2007. Although there was a slight delay the passengers were comfortable in the well ventilated Airbus. I was surprised that the leg room was even more spacious than some European flights I've been in. No wonder my parents in their sixties fly with them routinely to the Asian sectors.

Although we had to purchase our own food and drinks, the price was quite affordable. True enough Air Asia has made flying where "Now everyone can fly!". Our Malaysian athletes were happy to gobble up the nasi lemak on the return flight on the 4th November 2007. Despite having full or almost full flights, the flight crew managed the passangers professionally with a smile.

I would recommend Air Asia to anyone who wants to fly and has budget constraints. It will get you where you want to go in pretty decent shape. Good work, Air Asia!

Thursday, 8 November 2007

Intraarticular treatment of osteoarthritis using autologous interleukine-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) conditioned serum













Intra-articular injections of an autologous conditioned serum relieved pain and improved quality of life in osteoarthritis patients better than hyaluronic acid or saline injections in a recent trial reported in the ORTHOPAEDICS TODAY INTERNATIONAL 2007.

The German researchers found that injecting patients with their own blood after conditioning it elevated the levels of endogenous anti-inflammatory cytokines — relieved pain and inflammation, and is beneficial in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA). They presented results with the procedure and serum [Orthokine; Orthogen] at the 8th European Federation of National Associations of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Congress.

In the procedure, the blood is withdrawn from the patient using a specialized Orthokine syringe. The white blood cells contained in the blood immediately begin to produce IL-1Ra and other anti-inflammatory and regenerative proteins. The concentration of the lead substance IL-1Ra increases up to 140-fold compared to normal basal levels, said lead investigator Carsten Moser, MD.

Moser and his colleagues performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial which included 376 patients with knee OA with an intent-to-treat analysis. Patients received treatment from October 2003 to February 2005, and were randomized to receive injections of one of the following:

* 2 ml of autologous conditioned serum (ACS) six times, twice a week, for 3 consecutive weeks (134);
* hyaluronan (HA) in a series of three injections given once a week (135); or
* saline, given as three injections in 3 weeks (107).

Follow-up exams were conducted at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and 2 years.

According to the study abstract, patients with knee OA treated by ACS injection showed significant clinical improvements during the 26-week study compared to HA and saline injections on all scales.

The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) of pain was lowest in the ACS group associated with the largest reduction in VAS. The pain on weight-bearing decreased after the ACS injections from mean scores of 70.2 mm to 30.3 mm at week 13, and 30.4 mm at week 26.
The mean decrease for patients treated with HA and placebo was less than half in the ACS group. For example at week 26, the treatment difference between ACS and HA was 21.8 mm, and the difference between ACS and placebo was 22.5 mm.

The differences between the ACS group and the HA and placebo groups were highly statistically significant, favoring the ACS treatment (P<0.001) at weeks 7, 13 and 26.

Researchers found no significant difference between the HA and saline groups. The mean reduction of pain intensity in the HA and saline groups on the WOMAC scale were less than half that of the ACS group. However, reductions in pain intensity in the targeted knees in the HA and placebo groups were similar (P>0.05), and there was no statistically significant difference between the HA group and placebo group at all time points (P>0.05).

Two-year results were available for 89.9% of participants. The investigators excluded patients who had received subsequent pharmacologic or surgical treatment for their OA. According to the abstract, there were still statistically significant differences at 2-year follow-up between the ACS group and the HA and saline groups.
(adapted from Ortho Supersite).


The use of Orthokine has been approved in EU and Australia. It should be a useful treatment for athletes who suffer from early Osteoarthritis due to repetitive loading of their joints or trauma. Find out more from your doctor about this treatment option.

Reference:

* Moser C, Baltzer AW, Wehling P, et al. Treatment of knee osteoarthritis with autologous conditioned serum (ACS): A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, patient- and observer-blind, parallel-design trial. #F802. Presented at the 8th European Federation of National Associations of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Congress. May 11-15, 2007. Florence.

Useful links:
Orthogen Website
International Society for Molecular Orthopaedics

FEI 5* KL Grand Prix 2007


For the very first time, riders in Asia will be able to compete in the FEI Nations Cup CSIO event to be held in conjunction with the FEI 5* KL Grand Prix 2007 from the 23rd - 25th November 2007. Aside from the FEI Nations Cup CSIO, other highlights at the FEI 5* KL Grand Prix 2007 include the Future Champion Search, designed to provide an opportunity for young riders aged 21 and below, who would be Malaysia’s future gold medallists and Olympians to compete in an international event. These riders will also have the chance to observe, interact and learn from Olympians, world champions and gold medallists and be inspired. The event was first conceptualised in 1998 to bring the very first top international equestrian event to Asia, in Malaysia, in fulfilment of the objective of the Federation Equestre Internationale (FEI), to spread the sport in Asia.

An estimated 30,000 visitors are estimated at Stadium Putra to be thrilled by 30 of the world’s top riders and their prized horses, 40 riders from the Asian region and 30 Malaysian riders.

Come and be entertained by the world's best athletes and their beautiful and dedicated horses. See you there!

Find out more from these links:-
Official Website
Venue
Competition Schedule
Ticketing
Getting There
Who are the riders?

Tuesday, 6 November 2007

Malaysian Indoor Hockey Team